Durg, occupies the southwestern part of the Upper Sheonath-Mahanadi valley and the bordering hills in the south and southwest, is bestowed with mineral resources and forests.
In ancient times Durg was part of 'Dakshina' or 'Southern Kosala'. In the epic 'Ramayana', King Dasharatha Of Uttara Kosala married Kosalaya, the princess of Dakshnia Kosala.
The Chinese traveller Huien Tsang visited Southern Kosala in the 4th Century A.D. He mentions that he found an Asokan tope in the Capital city. It is therefore apparent that the District was included in Ashoka's Empire.
Álso in the 5th century AD, we get an authentic reference to this tract, in the famous Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudra Gupta. He claims that two kingdom Kosala and Mahakantara, sccumbed to his southern expedition.
However, the first specific reference with regard to the word "Durg" comes around the 8th century A.D. through two stone inscriptions; which were found in Durg and later deposited in the Raipur Museuem. The First incription mentions the name of a king Shiva Deva. The 2nd inscription associates the name of Sivapura (the capital of Shivadeva) with that of Shiva Durga, indicating thereby that during Shivadeva's reign the town and the fort were separate. The present name "Durg" is evidently a contraction of the old shivadurga, which he built. The river on whose banks stands the present town is also called "Shiva River ".
With the coming of the Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri in A.D. 1182, Durg came under there kingdom. From then on it remained under the Kalachuries, till 1742 A. D. when the Marathas deposed them.
In 1877, after the Marathas lost the IIIrd Anglo- Maratha War, the tract of Chhattisgarh passed into British hands. Caption Edmonds was the First British Officer posted in Chhattisgarh as Collector and Magistrate to carry on the administration. For the purpose of Administration Durg was attached to Bhandara District (now in Maharashtra) but in 1857 it was separated and made into a tehsil of Raipur district to which it remained attached till 1906.
In 1906 Durg was created as a separate district. The Collectorate building was built in the year 1907. Interestingly, cement was not used in the construction of the collectorate building, instead a mixure of limestone, gum, sand and fruit pulp was used as the binding agent. Today even though 100 years have gone by, the collectorate building stands strong as it might have been built yesterday. Soon after, 350 acres (1.4 km2) of land from Kasaridih Village, was acquired by the government to build official residences. It is on this land that we find today's Civil Lines, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla Stadium, Chaupati, Company Garden, New Bus Stand, Polytecnic College and the Law College. The First Collector Of Durg was Shri S. M. Chitnabees. It is in his memory that the road from Kucheri to the Railway Station has been named "Chitnabees Road".'
During the freedom struggle, Durg was a hot bed of nationallist activities. Almost all the prominent leaders including Mahatama Gandhi, Pt. Jawahalal Nehru and Dr. Rajendra Prasad visited Durg during the freedom struggle.
Nearest airport from the District Headquarter Durg is at Mana (Raipur) about 50 Kms.
The District is well interconnected by roads. The National Highway No. 6 traversing the district is the Mumbai-Calcutta G.E. Road. Other important roads of district are Durg-Dhamdha-Bemetara Road. Kawardha-Bemetara- Simga Road, Kumhari-Patharia Road, Rajnandgaon-Antagarh Road, Durg-Utai Road etc.
Durg town is favourably situated on the main line of the South Eastern Railway midway between Mumbai-Calcutta. The main railway line cuts across the District at its narrowest width, the total length of the line being only 17 Kms. There is also branch line from Durg to Dalli-Rajahara for transport of hte iron ore.